The United States is the world’s largest producer of beef and its second-largest importer. Imports mostly consist of lean trimmings used for processing into ground beef. These trimmings, which would otherwise go toward rendering or pet food, add value to the U.S. beef supply chain. Beef imports usually follow the U.S. cattle herd cycle where a contraction leads to an increase in imports and vice versa. For beef imports, the United States established several World Trade Organization (WTO)-negotiated tariff-rate quotas (TRQs). The United States established TRQs for specific countries and gave remaining countries access to an “Other Countries” TRQ. Several countries have gained access to the U.S. market in recent years, thus increasing the competition within the “Other Countries” TRQ. Nevertheless, U.S. beef imports consist of mostly products from free trade agreement (FTA) partners. 

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